Citation Information :
Balasubramanian R, Baliga SS, Kangle R, Patil KP, Srevatsa K. Association of Placental Risk Factors and Birth Weight of Newborn: A Case–Control Study. J South Asian Feder Obs Gynae 2022; 14 (5):519-526.
Introduction: The global incidence of low birth is 15%, and in India, it is 18%. Together with gestational maternal age and size, placental factors contribute to 32% of low-birth weight. Various factors influence the fetal growth such as the factors originating from fetus itself, maternal factors, placental factors, and the factors due to interaction of all these factors.
Materials and methods: The placenta was collected from 30 mothers of low-birth-weight babies and 60 placentas from mothers of normal-birth-weight babies in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from October 2020 to December 2020. Information regarding maternal characteristics, placental morphometry, and newborn parameters were recorded.
Results: Mean of placental weight is significantly less in case group (420 + 7 gm) compared with control (560 + 100) group. Mean of placental length, breadth, surface area, diameter, and thickness is significantly less in the case group compared with the control group (p <0.05). The presence of hard areas, focal avascular villi, syncytial knotting, focal hyaline degeneration, and fibromuscular sclerosis was seen more in low-birth-weight babies when compared with normal-birth-weight babies (p <0.05).
Conclusion: Placental factors such as placental weight, placental length, breadth, diameter, surface area, thickness, and volume were less in low-birth-weight babies. All the microscopic and gross findings like the presence of hard areas, focal avascular villi, syncytial knotting, focal hyaline degeneration, and fibromuscular sclerosis were seen more in low-birth-weight babies.
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