Thin endometrium is frequently encountered during the treatment of female infertility. It is associated with lower implantation and pregnancy rates. Adequate growth is an integral step in endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. Several modalities have been studied and include extended estrogen, pentoxifylline, tocopherol, low-dose aspirin, acupuncture, neuromuscular stimulation, L-arginine, vaginal sildenafil, granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF), and stem cell therapy. Studies show that vaginal sildenafil appears to be the first-line therapy option, G-CSF appears to be a potential second option, while stem cell therapy appears a new promising treatment modality.
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