Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE S1 ( April, 2024 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Study of Second Stage Partogram in Detection of Abnormalities of Second Stage

Farhana Giri, Misbah Shawl, Shazia Bashir, Rizwana Habib, Rassieq Aslam

Keywords : Duration of labor, Second stage partogram, Second stage partogram score

Citation Information :

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10006-2365

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 06-03-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


The second stage of labor is critical as well as prime as it affects the maternal and perinatal outcome in the form of risk of prompt hypoxic fetal stress and perineal maternal trauma. The aim of optimizing the second stage management is to understand and rectify the association between the uterine contractions, fetus, and birth canal to reduce the maternal and perinatal complications. Background: Emphasis has been laid on the first stage of labor using partogram and on the third stage of labor, including active management of labor, to provide habile care and decrease complications of the second stage of labor have been ignored. Methods: Once full dilation was achieved, per vaginal examination was done after proper consent. Position and station of head was noted and scored. After 30 minutes, per vaginal examination was repeated and position and station was noted, and then at 15 minutes till delivery. Results: Second stage partogram helps us to early detect the abnormal progress of second stage and to intervene early in terms of augmentation of labor or operative vaginal delivery and prevent maternal and fetal complications. Conclusion: Second stage partograph may help to prognosticate obstetric and perinatal outcome by using variables, such as station and position of head.

  1. Normal Labor, Chapter 22, Williams Obstetrics, 25th edition.
  2. Management of second stage of labor. In: Chandraharan E (Ed). The Continuous Textbook of Women's Medicine Series, Labor and Delivery Obstetrics Module, Vol. 11.
  3. Cohen W, Friedman EA. Clinical evaluation of labor: An evidence and experience based approach. J Perinat Med 2020. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2020-0256.
  4. Abnormal labor, Chapter 23. In Cunningham F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, (Eds.), Williams Obstetrics, McGraw Hill: 2018:25e.
  5. Abnormal Labor Patterns, Prolonged Labor, Chapter 21. In: Sharma JB (Ed). Textbook of Obstetrics, 2nd edition.
  6. Mathai M. The partograph for the prevention of obstructed labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2009;52(2):256–269. DOI: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181a4f163.
  7. WHO. WHO Recommendations of Augmentation of Labour. WHO 2014. PMID: 25506951.
  8. Dalal AR, Purandare AC. The partograph in childbirth: An absolute essentiality or a mere exercise? J Obstet Gynaecol India 2018;68(1): 3–14. DOI: 10.1007/s13224-017-1051-y.
  9. Kolekar R, Gundalli SM, Kolekar A, et al. Role of partogram in nulliparas. Int J Sci Res 2014;3(12):2539–2544.
  10. FIGO Guidelines, Management of second stage of labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012;119:111–116. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.08.002.
  11. Sizer AR, Evans J, Bailey SM, et al. A second stage partogram. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96(5):678–683. DOI: 10.1016/s0029-7844(00)00981-9.
  12. Hofmeyr GJ, Bernitz S, Bonet M, et al. WHO next-generation partograph: Revolutionary steps towards individualised labour care. BJOG IJOG 2021;128(10):1658–1662. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.16694.
  13. Kanmani M. Evaluation of second stage partogram in obstetric outcome. [Master's thesis]. Chennai: Madras Medical College; 2009.
  14. Senecal J, Xiong X, Fraser WD. Effect of fetal position on second stage duration and labour outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105(4):763–772. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000154889.47063.84.
  15. Cheng YW, Hopkins LM, Caughey AB. How long is too long: Does a prolonged second stage in nulliparous women affect maternal and neonatal outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191(3):933–938. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.05.044.
  16. Ruchika G, Asha N, Rajani R. Study of labour abnormalities with reference to composite partograph. Int J Curr Res Rev 2016;4(2): 113–123. ISSN: 2347–3215.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.