Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 5 ( September-October, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Association of Placental Risk Factors and Birth Weight of Newborn: A Case–Control Study

R Balasubramanian, Sulakshana Shridhar Baliga, Ranjit Kangle, Kamal P Patil, Karthik Srevatsa

Keywords : Low birth weight, Maternal risk factors, Newborn, Placental morphometry, Placental risk factors, Placental weight

Citation Information : Balasubramanian R, Baliga SS, Kangle R, Patil KP, Srevatsa K. Association of Placental Risk Factors and Birth Weight of Newborn: A Case–Control Study. J South Asian Feder Obs Gynae 2022; 14 (5):519-526.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10006-2124

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 16-11-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Introduction: The global incidence of low birth is 15%, and in India, it is 18%. Together with gestational maternal age and size, placental factors contribute to 32% of low-birth weight. Various factors influence the fetal growth such as the factors originating from fetus itself, maternal factors, placental factors, and the factors due to interaction of all these factors. Materials and methods: The placenta was collected from 30 mothers of low-birth-weight babies and 60 placentas from mothers of normal-birth-weight babies in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from October 2020 to December 2020. Information regarding maternal characteristics, placental morphometry, and newborn parameters were recorded. Results: Mean of placental weight is significantly less in case group (420 + 7 gm) compared with control (560 + 100) group. Mean of placental length, breadth, surface area, diameter, and thickness is significantly less in the case group compared with the control group (p <0.05). The presence of hard areas, focal avascular villi, syncytial knotting, focal hyaline degeneration, and fibromuscular sclerosis was seen more in low-birth-weight babies when compared with normal-birth-weight babies (p <0.05). Conclusion: Placental factors such as placental weight, placental length, breadth, diameter, surface area, thickness, and volume were less in low-birth-weight babies. All the microscopic and gross findings like the presence of hard areas, focal avascular villi, syncytial knotting, focal hyaline degeneration, and fibromuscular sclerosis were seen more in low-birth-weight babies.

  1. Sadler TW, Jan Langman. Langman's Medical Embryology. 12th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. pp. 100–109.
  2. Vivek Jain. Review of Preventive and Social Medicine (Including Biostatistics). 11th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd; 2019. pp. 485–486.
  3. Sanin LH, López SR, Olivares ET, et al. Relation between birth weight and placenta weight. Biol Neonate 2001;80(2):113–117. DOI: 10.1159/000047129.
  4. Valero de Bernabé J, Soriano T, Albaladejo R, et al. Risk factors for low birth weight: A review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004;116(1):3–15. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2004.03.007.
  5. Gupta C, Harode H, D'Souza A. A morphological and morphometric study of placenta with its clinical implications. Trop J Med Res 2015;18(2):85. DOI: 10.4103/1119-0388.158400.
  6. Balihallimath R, Bhusaraddi PS, Singh I, et al. Determinants of feto-placental ratio. J Int Med Dent 2015;2(2):111–117.
  7. Khong TY, Mooney EE, Ariel I, et al. Sampling and definitions of placental lesions Amsterdam placental workshop group consensus statement. In: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. College of American Pathologists; 2016; 140(7):698–713. DOI: 10.5858/arpa.2015-0225-CC.
  8. Nigam J, Misra V, Singh P, et al. Histopathological study of placentae in low birth weight babies in India. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014; 4(Suppl 2):S79–S83. DOI: 10.4103/2141-9248.138016.
  9. Balihallimath R, Shirol V, Tyagi N, et al. Maternal determinants of placental morphometry and birth weight. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2015;4(4):508–515. DOI: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1012201499.
  10. Patel S, Verma NR, Padhi P, et al. Retrospective analysis to identify the association of various determinants on birth weight. J Family Med Prim Care 2021;10(1):496–501. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1493_20.
  11. Aras R. Is maternal age risk factor for low birth weight? Arch Med Health Sci 2013;1(1):33–37. DOI: 10.4103/2321-4848.113558.
  12. Baptiste-Roberts K, Salafia CM, Nicholson WK, et al. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008;8(1):44. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-44.
  13. Dougherty CRS, Jones AD. The determinants of birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;144(2):190–200. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9378(82)90627-5.
  14. Joshi JM, Patel D. A study of association between maternal placental weight and neonatal characteristics. J Evol Med Dent Sci 2013;2(7):689–695. DOI: 10.14260/jemds/325.
  15. Chien LY, Whyte R, Aziz K, et al. Improved outcome of preterm infants when delivered in tertiary care centers. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98(2):247–252. DOI: 10.1016/s0029-7844(01)01438-7.
  16. Suarez Idneta L, Bedford H, Ohuma EO, et al. Maternal risk factors for small-for-gestational-age newborns in Mexico: Analysis of a nationwide representative cohort. Front Public Health 2021;9:707078. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.707078.
  17. Luque-Fernandez MA, Ananth CV, Jaddoe VWV, et al. Is the fetoplacental ratio a differential marker of fetal growth restriction in small for gestational age infants? Eur J Epidemiol 2015;30(4):331–341. DOI: 10.1007/s10654-015-9993-9.
  18. Kim HS, Cho SH, Kwon HS, et al. The significance of placental ratios in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol Sci 2014;57(5): 358–366. DOI: 10.5468/ogs.2014.57.5.358.
  19. Raghavendra AY, Vinay KV, Veena P. A Study of Placental Weight and Fetal Outcome In Different Grades of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. Int J Anat Res 2014;2(4):625–629.
  20. Onche EP, Zaiyol ST, Ochigbo OA. Placental-birth weight ratio atterm at the benue state university teaching hospital, makurdi, north-central Nigeria. Res Rep Gynecol Obstet 2017;1(3):16–18. cd0469364b7/placenta-birthweight-ratio-published.pdf.
  21. Dhagale JR, Salunkhe JA, Kakade SV, et al. A comparative study to assess the relationship of placental weight and fetal outcome among normal and anemic mothers admitted in Tertiary Care hospital Karad. Asian J Pharm Res Health Care 2017;9(4):180–185. DOI: 10.18311/ajprhc/2017/16363.
  22. Panti A, Yakubu A, Ekele B, et al. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight of the neonate in a Nigerian Hospital. Niger Med J 2012;53(2):80–84. DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.103547.
  23. D'Sa DS, Sangeetha V. Morphometric study of placenta in relation to birth weight of full term new-borns. Int J Anat Res 2018;6(1.2): 4924–4927. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2017.508.
  24. Boog G. Chronic villitis of unknown etiology. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008;136(1):9–15. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2007.06.018.
  25. Roesher AM, Timmer A, Erwich JH, et al. Placental pathology, perinatal death, neonatal outcome and neurological development. A systematic review. PLoS One 2014;9(2):e89419. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089419.
  26. Zhou Y, McMaster M, Woo K, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors that regulate human cytotrophoblast survival are dysregulated in severe preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. Am J Pathol 2002;160(4):1405–1423. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62567-9.
  27. Cantle SJ, Kaufmann P, Luckhardt M, et al. Interpretation of syncytial sprouts and bridges in the human placenta. Placenta 1987;8(3): 221–234. DOI: 10.1016/0143-4004(87)90046-4.
  28. Pinar H, Goldenberg RL, Koch MA, et al. Placental findings in singleton stillbirths. Obstet Gynecol 2014;123(2 Pt 1):325–336. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000100.
  29. Aldahmash WM, Alwasel SH, Aljerian K. Gestational diabetes mellitus induces placental vasculopathies. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022;29(13):19860–19868. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-17267-y.
  30. Balihallimath RL, Shirol VS, Gan AM, et al. Placental morphometry determines the birth weight. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7(11):2428–2431. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/7478.3564.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.