It is a rare entity described among patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs), characterized by enlarging metastatic masses despite appropriate systemic chemotherapy and normalized serum markers. The prevalence of growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is only 1.9–7.6% after testicular NSGCT and 12% after ovarian germ cell tumor although more commonly seen is post-testicular and generally affects young adults and adolescents. The etiology remains unclear. They are mostly asymptomatic but abdominal pain/distension may be seen. Their prognosis is highly dependent on the timing of diagnosis, and early diagnosis has an excellent prognosis. There is no effective medical treatment for GTS and it is unresponsive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Total surgical removal of mature teratomas is currently the gold standard treatment of this condition. Hence, in this article, we have covered the complete review of this rare entity called GTS.
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