Citation Information :
Intaraphet S, Kongpechr S, Mahawerawat S, Potchana R. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Preterm Birth among Northeastern Thai Teenage Mothers in Thailand. J South Asian Feder Obs Gynae 2021; 13 (2):111-116.
Background and objectives: Teenage pregnancy itself is a risk factor for preterm birth in general. However, risk factors for preterm birth comparing teenage mothers who have preterm and no preterm birth are unaware. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for preterm birth and outcomes of pregnancy among teenage mothers.
Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study of all singleton teenage pregnancy cases giving birth from January 2014 to December 2015 at Khon Kaen Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Thailand, was conducted. Data on the characteristics of teenage mothers and outcomes of pregnancy were extracted from electronic files of medical records. Teenage mothers were classified into two groups according to gestational age at the time of delivery: term and preterm, to identify risk factors of preterm birth among teenage mothers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate independent risk factors for preterm births among teenage mothers.
Results: During the study period, 1042 teenage mothers were identified. The preterm birth rate among teenage mothers was 16.8%. BMI before pregnancy <18.5 kg/m2 (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.28–2.81), weight gain <5 kg (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 2.96–8.81), prenatal care visit <4 times (OR, 5.16; 95% CI, 3.50–7.61), premature rupture of membranes (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 2.20–8.11), and previous preterm birth (OR, 46.56; 95% CI, 13.15–164.88) were found to be independent risk factors for preterm births among teenage mothers.
Conclusion: Previous preterm birth showed a very strong effect on current preterm birth. All risk factors for preterm birth should be considered to prevent preterm births among teenage mothers. Emphasizing the importance of prenatal care visits and proper nutrition for teenage pregnancy women would be beneficial.
WHO. Adolescent pregnancy: issues in adolescent health and development. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42903/1/9241591455_eng.pdf (accessed 25 March 2015).
Chen XK, Wen SW, Fleming N, et al. Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 2007;36:368. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyl284.
Smith GC, Pell JP. Teenage pregnancy and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes associated with first and second births: population based retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2001;323:476. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.323.7311.476.
Kumar A, Singh T, Basu S, et al. Outcome of teenage pregnancy. Indian J Pediatr 2007;74:927. DOI: 10.1007/s12098-007-0171-2.
Thaithae S, Thato R. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage pregnancies in Thailand. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2011;24:342. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpag.2011.02.009.
Jeha D, Usta I, Ghulmiyyah L, et al. A review of the risks and consequences of adolescent pregnancy. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2015. DOI: 10.3233/NPM-15814038.
Liu L, Johnson HL, Cousens S, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Lancet 2012;379:2151. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60560-1.
OECD/WHO. Health at a glance: Asia/Pacific 2018: measuring progress towards universal health coverage. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2018. DOI: 10.1787/health_glance_ap-2018-en.
Blencowe H, Cousens S, Chou D, et al. Born too soon: the global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births. Reprod Health 2013;10:S2. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-S1-S2.
Rogers LK, Velten M. Maternal inflammation, growth retardation, and preterm birth: insights into adult cardiovascular disease. Life Sci 2011;89:417. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2011.07.017.
Hamad KA, Abed Y, Hamad BA. Risk factors associated with preterm birth in the Gaza Strip: hospital-based case-control study. East Mediterr Health J 2007;13:1132. DOI: 10.26719/2007.13.5.1132.
Edstedt Bonamy AK, Bengtsson J, Nagy Z, et al. Preterm birth and maternal smoking in pregnancy are strong risk factors for aortic narrowing in adolescence. Acta Paediatr 2008;97:1080. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00890.x.
Wise LA, Palmer JR, Heffner LJ, et al. Prepregnancy body size, gestational weight gain, and risk of preterm birth in African-American women. Epidemiology 2010;21:243. DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181cb61a9.
Schieve LA, Cogswell ME, Scanlon KS, et al. Prepregnancy body mass index and pregnancy weight gain: associations with preterm delivery. The NMIHS Collaborative Study Group. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96:194. DOI: 10.1016/s0029-7844(00)00883-8.
Vintzileos AM, Ananth CV, Smulian JC, et al. The impact of prenatal care in the United States on preterm births in the presence and absence of antenatal high-risk conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:1254. DOI: 10.1067/mob.2002.127140.
Thomazini IFS, Wysocki AD, da Cunha MCB, et al. Risk factors related to premature labor in pregnant adolescents: an integrative literature review. Enfermaria Glob 2016;15:440. DOI:10.6018/eglobal.15.4.236961.
Partington SN, Steber DL, Blair KA, et al. Second births to teenage mothers: risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2009;45:101. DOI: 10.1363/4110109.
Khashan AS, Baker PN, Kenny LC. Preterm birth and reduced birthweight in first and second teenage pregnancies: a register-based cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2010;10:36. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-10-36.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Antepartum care. In: Guidelines for perinatal care, 6th ed. Washington DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2007, pp. 83–137.
WHO. WHO antenatal care randomized trial: manual for the implementation of the new model. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. Available at: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/RHR_01_30/en/ (accessed 6 October 2015).
Beck S, Wojdyl D, Say L, et al. The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity. Bull World Health Organ 2010;88:31. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.08.062554.
Debiec KE, Paul KJ, Mitchell CM, et al. Inadequate prenatal care and risk of preterm delivery among adolescents: a retrospective study over 10 years. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.03.001.
Goldenberg RL, Culhane JF, Iams JD, et al. Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth. Lancet 2008;371:75. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60074-4.
Ekwo EE, Gosselink CA, Moawad A. Unfavorable outcome in penultimate pregnancy and premature rupture of membranes in successive pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1992;80:166. PMID:1635725.
Phillips C, Velji Z, Hanly C, et al. Risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth: a systematic review and meta analysis. BMJ Open. 2017. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015402.
Basso O, Wilcox A. Mortality risk among preterm babies: immaturity versus underlying pathology. Epidemiology 2010;21:521. DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181debe5e.
Liabsuetrakul T, Defever K, Lawantrakul J, et al. Evaluation of an epidemiological surveillance system for preterm birth and low birth weight in Southern Thailand. J Health Sci Med Res 2019;37:5. DOI: 10.31584/jhsmr.201933.