Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2018 ) > List of Articles


Mysterious Oddities of Conception–An Insight into Congenital Malformations: A 2 Year Study

Nithya P Jayakumar, Sharan J Pal

Keywords : Antenatal scan, Congenital anomalies, Prevalence.

Citation Information : Jayakumar NP, Pal SJ. Mysterious Oddities of Conception–An Insight into Congenital Malformations: A 2 Year Study. J South Asian Feder Obs Gynae 2018; 10 (3):186-190.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10006-1586

Published Online: 01-07-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Introduction: ‘A flower bloomed already wilting. Beginning its life with an early ending’. Some babies with birth defects are unfortunate whose birth is clouded with sadness and worry for the parents because of the birth defects in them which manifest either immediately after birth or after a while, depending on the nature of the congenital abnormality. Aims and objectives: To study the prevalence of fetal anomalies over 2 years in a tertiary care hospital and its relation to maternal and fetal factors. Materials and methods: A retrospective study from January 2014 to December 2015. Cases with anomalous babies were identified from the birth registry and the corresponding files were retrieved from the hospital medical records section. The details were recorded in the designed proforma and influences of variables such as age, parity, consanguinity, gender, the type of anomalies, mode of termination, associated antenatal complications were studied. Collected data were analyzed by proportions. Results: Out of 12650 deliveries in 2 years, the overall prevalence of anomalous babies was found to be 0.5% (63). Incidence of anomalies was found to be more in multipara than primigravida. Among the anomalies detected central nervous system accounted to be the highest–52.4%, followed by cardiac-14.3%. Among the various other anomalies facial defects–9.5%, musculoskeletal– 4.8%, chromosomal–4.8%, Gastrointestial system– 4.8%,abdominal wall defects–1.6%, genitourinary–1.6% and some had combination of one or more systems. Male gender was found to be predominant among the anomalous fetus,73% of the mothers had no associated antenatal complications. Two mothers were diagnosed with toxoplasma gondii, other viruses, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex (TORCH). Conclusion: Prevalence of anomalies was found to be 0.5% over 2 years in our hospital which is comparatively lower than the national average of 2 to 3% and it was 1.2% in a study conducted over 5 years (Jan 2008–Dec 2012) in the same hospital settings. Timely antenatal diagnosis of malformations before 20 weeks of pregnancy will provide an opportunity to consult, counsel, intervene and reduce the high morbidity and mortality.

PDF Share
  1. Birth Defects Research. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  2. Bhat BV, Ravikumara M. Perinatal mortality in India-Need for introspection. Indian J Matern Child Health. 1996 Jan- March;7(1):31-33.
  3. Abel EL. “Paternal contribution to fetal alcohol syndrome”. Addiction Biology. 2004 June 9;(2):127-133.
  4. Agarwal SS, Singh U, Singh PS, Singh SS, Das V, Sharma A, et al. Prevalence and spectrum of congenital malformations in a prospective study at a teaching hospital. Indian J Med Res. 1991Dec;94:413-419
  5. De Santis M, Cesari E, Cavaliere A, Ligato MS, Nobili E, Visconti D et al. “Paternal exposure and counselling: Experience of a Teratology Information Service”. Reproductive Toxicology. 2008 Sep 1;26(1):42-46.
  6. Sartorius GA, Nieschlag E. “Paternal age and reproduction”. Human Reproduction Update 20 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1): 65-79.
  7. Anderson, Diana, Schmid, Thomas E, Baumgartner, Adolf. “Male-mediated developmental toxicity”. Asian Journal of Andrology 2014 Jan-Feb;16(1):81-88.
  8. PS A, Thottumkal VA, Deepak MG. Congenital Anomalies: a Major Public Health Issue in India. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical & Biological Sciences. 2013 Jul 1;3(3):577-585
  9. “Birth Defects”. Dec 15, 2015. Retrieved 17 Jan 2016.
  10. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2015 Jan;385(9963):117–71.
  11. Karbasi SA, Golestan M, Fallah R, Mirnaseri F, Barkhordari K, Bafghee S. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations in Yazd(Iran). ActaMedicaIranica. 2009 Sept; 47(2): 149- 153.
  12. Sawardekar KP. Profile of major congenital malformations at Nizwa hospital 10-year review. J Paediatric Child Health. 2005 Jul;41(7):323-330.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.